Открытая книга (Russian Edition)

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Granovetter, R. Polanyi Granovetter, Mark. Collins Gerschenkron, Alexander. Gerschenkron Chandler, Alfred. Chandler Dore, Ronald. Dore Hamilton, Gary.

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Hamilton, N. Geertz Granovetter, Mark. Granovetter Macaulay, Stewart. Macaulay Zelizer, Viviana.

Strauss Dalton, Melville. Dalton Stinchcombe, Arthur. Stinchcombe Hirsch, Paul. Hirsch DDC: Compared to earlier traditions of economic sociology, recent work shows more interest in phenomena usually studied exclusively by economists, while at the same time challenging the adequacy of the neoclassical model. Incorporating classic and contemporary readings in economic sociology as well as offerings from related disciplines, this book provides students with a broad understanding of the dimensions of economic life. This volume on "Social Economics" is concerned with the problems of mankind in its ordinary everyday environment - with population, housing, working conditions, unemployment, poverty, social services, national insurance and assistance, and the welfare state.

Hagenbuch confines his factual material almost entirely to Great Britain, and is notably successful in avoiding both undue attention to theory and over-elaboration of theoretical aspects. Index : p. Appadurai Kopytoff, I. Kopytoff Davenport, W. Davenport Gell, A. Gell Renfrew, C. Renfrew Geary, P. Geary Spooner, B. Spooner Cassanelli, L. Cassanelli Reddy, W.

Reddy Bayly, C. Bayly DDC: He was also a shareholder in ironworks in South Wales and Cumberland. He contributed to the development of the stationary steam engine, for as early as he built one to run with a pressure of psi He reheated the steam between the cylinders of compound engines and then in —2 patented a triple-expansion engine, followed in by a quadruple-expansion one to further economize steam.

In he developed improved machinery for testing tensile strength and compressive resistance of materials, and in the same year patents for hydraulic lifting jacks and riveting machines were obtained. He was a founding member of the Iron and Steel Institute and became its President in when it visited Manchester. He was a constant contributor at the meetings of these associations as well as those of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He did not live to see the opening of one of his final achievements, the Manchester Ship Canal. He was the one man who, by his indomitable energy and skill at public speaking, roused the enthusiasm of the people in Manchester for this project and he made it a really practical proposition in the face of strong opposition.

Principal Honours and Distinctions. President, Iron and Steel Institute Obituary, Engineer Obituary, Engineering —8. Obituary, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers —8. Hills, , Power from Steam. Allen was taken to the United States from England when he was 12 years old. He became an engineer on the Curlew , a freight boat running between New York and Providence.

A defect which caused the engine to race in rough weather led Allen to invent a new valve gear, but he found it could not be fitted to the Corliss engine. In he patented an improved form of valve and operating gear to reduce back-pressure in the cylinder, which was in fact the reverse of what happened in his later engines. In he repaired the engines of a New York felt-hat manufacturer, Henry Burr, and that winter he was introduced to Charles Porter.

Porter realized the potential of Allen's valves for his idea of a high-speed engine, and the Porter-Allen engine became the pioneer of high-speed designs. Porter persuaded Allen to patent his new valves and two patents were obtained in These valves could be driven positively and yet the travel of the inlet could be varied to give the maximum expansion at different cut-offs.

Also, the valves allowed an exceptionally good flow of steam. While Porter went to England and tried to interest manufacturers there, Allen remained in America and continued work on the engine. Within a few years he invented an inclined watertube boiler, but he seemed incapable of furthering his inventions once they had been placed on the market.

Although he mortgaged his own house in order to help finance the factory for building the steam engine, in the early s he left Porter and built a workshop of his own at Mott Haven. There he invented important systems for riveting by pneumatic machines through both percussion and pressure which led into the production of air compressors and riveting machines. Obituaries appeared in engineering journals at the time of his death.

Dictionary of American Biography, , Vol. I, New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Tralles was a wealthy city in ancient Greece. Ruins of the city are situated on a plateau above the present-day Turkish city of Aydin, in Asia Minor, which is near to Ephesus. After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD Tralles remained a part of the Byzantine Empire until its destruction in Anthemios was one of the great sons of Tralles and was probably educated in Alexandria. This vast building, later a Turkish mosque and now a museum, was built for the Emperor Justinian between and AD.

It was an early and, certainly for many centuries, the largest example of pendentive construction to support a dome. This form, using the spherical triangles of the pendentives, enabled a circular-based dome to be supported safely upon piers that stood on a square plan below.

It gradually replaced the earlier squinch type of structure, though both forms of design stem from Middle Eastern origins. At Santa Sophia the dome rises to ft 55m above floor level and has a diameter of over ft 30m. Son of a clockmaker, he studied physics and chemistry under H. He assisted the Montgolfier brothers in their Paris balloon ascents.

From Argand spent some time in Montpellier, where he conceived the idea of the lamp that was to make him famous. It was an oil lamp with gravity oil feed, in which the flame was enlarged by burning it in a current of air induced by two concentric iron tubes.

It produced ten times the illumination of the simple oil lamp. From the autumn of to summer , Argand travelled to London and Birmingham to promote the manufacture and sale of his lamp. However, during the Revolution, Argand's factories were destroyed and his licence annulled.

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He withdrew to Versoix, near Geneva. In , the English persuaded him to take refuge in England and tried, apparently without success, to obtain recompense for his losses.

Открытая книга by Veniamin Kaverin

Argand is also remembered for his work on distillation and on the water distributor or hydraulic ram, which was conceived with Joseph Montgolfier in and recognized by the grant of a patent in the same year. American engineer who invented the regenerative and superheterodyne amplifiers and frequency modulation, all major contributions to radio communication and broadcasting. Interested from childhood in anything mechanical, as a teenager Armstrong constructed a variety of wireless equipment in the attic of his parents' home, including spark-gap transmitters and receivers with iron-filing "coherer" detectors capable of producing weak Morse-code signals.

In , while still a student of engineering at Columbia University, he applied positive, i. Furthermore, by allowing the circuit to go into full oscillation he found he could generate stable continuous-waves, making possible the first reliable CW radio transmitter. Sadly, his claim to priority with this invention, for which he filed US patents in , the year he graduated from Columbia, led to many years of litigation with De Forest, to whom the US Supreme Court finally, but unjustly, awarded the patent in The engineering world clearly did not agree with this decision, for the Institution of Radio Engineers did not revoke its previous award of a gold medal and he subsequently received the highest US scientific award, the Franklin Medal, for this discovery.

During the First World War, after some time as an instructor at Columbia University, he joined the US Signal Corps laboratories in Paris, where in he invented the superheterodyne, a major contribution to radio-receiver design and for which he filed a patent in The principle of this circuit, which underlies virtually all modern radio, TV and radar reception, is that by using a local oscillator to convert, or "heterodyne", a wanted signal to a lower, fixed, "intermediate" frequency it is possible to obtain high amplification and selectivity without the need to "track" the tuning of numerous variable circuits.

Returning to Columbia after the war and eventually becoming Professor of Electrical Engineering, he made a fortune from the sale of his patent rights and used part of his wealth to fund his own research into further problems in radio communication, particularly that of receiver noise. In he filed four patents covering the use of wide-band frequency modulation FM to achieve low-noise, high-fidelity sound broadcasting, but unable to interest RCA he eventually built a complete broadcast transmitter at his own expense in to prove the advantages of his system.

Unfortunately, there followed another long battle to protect and exploit his patents, and exhausted and virtually ruined he took his own life in , just as the use of FM became an established technique. Institution of Radio Engineers Medal of Honour Franklin Medal American Medal for Merit Its origin, developments and some recent improvements", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers Maclaurin and R. Goldsmith, , Frequency Modulation for the background to the development of frequency modulation, in the form of a large collection of papers and an extensive bibliog raphy.

Barry was typical of the outstanding architects of this time. His work was eclectic, and he suited the style—whether Gothic or classical—to the commission and utilized the then-traditional materials and methods of construction. He is best known as architect of the new Palace of Westminster; he won the competition to rebuild it after the disastrous fire of the old palace in Bearing this in mind in the rebuilding, Barry utilized that characteristic nineteenth-century material, iron for joists and roofing plates.

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Knighted Port ed. Colvin ed. Belidor was the son of a French army officer, who died when he was six months old, and was thereafter brought up by a brother officer.

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