Anatomy Quick Review: Muscles, Joints and Ligaments (Quick Review Notes Book 1)

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Two of these are bones and muscles. Bones shape our body and help us to stand up straight. Muscles are attached to bones; they help us walk and run and smile.

Swellings of the sternoclavicular joint: review of traumatic and non-traumatic pathologies

All the bones in our body make up our skeleton — from the top of our skull to the tips of the phalanges at the end of our toes. Muscles stretch across our bones and are attached with tendons. The skeleton acts like a shield for our vital organs, such as our brain and heart. The skull protects the brain, the ribcage protects the lungs and heart, and the backbone wraps all the way around the spinal cord.


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Bone density measures how healthy a bone is — it shows how much mineral matter there is in a square centimetre of bone. Bone marrow is a tissue found inside bones. Bone marrow is part of the lymphatic system, which plays an important role in the immune system — how our body fights diseases. There are six different kinds of fractures: complete, greenstick, single, comminuted, bowing and open.

Doctors use x-rays to help them decide how to set the broken bones so they can join back up with new cells and blood vessels. Bones need calcium to keep healthy.

The Lower Limb

Calcium can be found in dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, nuts, orange juice and soy. Vitamin D helps the body and bones absorb calcium — fish and egg yolks both have vitamin D in them. Smooth muscles and cardiac muscles are also called involuntary muscles, because they move without you telling them to. When muscles feel sore, it can be because of a strain — the muscle fibres have torn a bit and need time to heal. Start your trial for FREE today! Access thousands of brilliant resources to help your child be the best they can be.

What are bones and muscles? Top 10 facts about bones: Together, the bones in our body are called the skeleton.

Core Anatomy Books

There are bones in the human body. The main bone in our head is called the skull. Bones have three parts, plus most have a substance deep inside called marrow. Bones need calcium to keep healthy — foods like milk, nuts and broccoli all have calcium in them. We get bigger and taller when our bones grow. Doctors can tell how healthy our bones are by measuring our bone density. In addition to muscles, we have joints between our bones to do things like moving our arm up and down, and turning our head.

The longest bone in your body is called the femur, which is located in your thigh. It really hurts!

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Top 10 facts about muscles: Muscles make up almost half of how much we weigh. There are about muscles in the human body.


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  8. The most important one is the heart. There are three different kinds of muscles — skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Involuntary muscles like the heart move without us thinking about it.

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    Voluntary muscles are found in places like our arms and legs — we decide when we want to move them. Muscles are attached to bones with tendons. The largest muscle is called the gluteus maximus, in your bottom. It helps you walk. Moving a muscle involves contracting it pulling it and relaxing it letting it rest. NSAIDs have been a mainstay treatment of ligament injuries for many years, especially for acute sports injuries, but new research has shown that NSAIDs are only mildly effective in relieving the symptoms of most muscle, ligament, and tendon injuries and are potentially deleterious to soft tissue healing.

    NSAIDs specifically block the cyclooxygenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins which play a significant role in ligament healing. One study looked at the use of Piroxicam in the treatment of acute ankle sprains in the Australian military. While the recruits were able to resume training more rapidly, in the long-term, an increase in ankle instability was evidenced by a positive anterior drawer sign in the Piroxicam group.

    Corticosteroid injections have long been used to treat musculoskeletal disorders including ligament injuries. Although steroid injections have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and pain of ligament injuries for up to six to eight weeks, the histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of ligament healing are inhibited.

    Corticosteroid injections into injured ligaments have an adverse effect on healing. Prolotherapy has emerged as an injection therapy treatment option for musculoskeletal and arthritic pain. It involves the injection of a small amount of various proliferant solutions such as hypertonic dextrose, sodium morrhuate, platelet rich plasma at the painful entheses of ligaments and tendons, as well as trigger points and adjacent joint spaces to induce healing of the injured structures.

    Prolotherapy is given to the articular ligaments of the entire spine, pelvis and peripheral joints to tighten unstable joints.


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    Ligament healing is often slow and incomplete. Joint laxity caused by ligament injury improves slowly over a period of six week to a year. However, at six weeks to one year after injury, a large percentage of patients still possess objective mechanical laxity and subjective joint instability.

    anatomy quick review muscles joints and ligaments quick review notes book 1 Manual

    Numerous strategies have been employed over the year attempting to improve ligament healing after injury or surgery. One of the most important advances in the treatment of ligament injuries has come from the understanding that controlled early resumption of activity can stimulate repair and restoration of function, and that treatment of ligament injuries with prolonged rest may delay recovery and adversely affect the tissue to repair.

    Likewise, although steroid injections and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications have been shown to be effective in decreasing inflammation and pain of ligament injuries for up to six to eight weeks, the histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of ligament healing are inhibited. Regenerative medicine techniques, such as Prolotherapy, have shown success in case series involving ligament injuries of the spine and peripheral joints, but studies in more controlled settings and with large numbers are needed in the future.

    Ligament structure, physiology and function. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. Ligament injury, reconstruction, and osteoarthritis. Current opinion in orthopaedics. Osteoarthritis in other joints hip, elbow, foot, toes, wrist after sports injuries. Clinical Sports Medicine.

    MR imaging of thumb carpometacarpal joint ligament injuries. Journal of Hand Surgery. Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb: a systematic review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Osteoarthritis: epidemiology. Soft-tissue physiology and repair. In: Vaccaro A, ed. Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 8.

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